Khudat bey Rafibeyli

He was a professional surgeon as well as a highly educated soul doctor – therapist.
He also had an important human characteristic that distinguished him from other doctors at that time. This was because Mr. Khudadat never took money from his patients from the poor population. Sometimes it happened that the patient who came to him for treatment did not have money to buy medicine. In such cases, Mr. Khudadat put money in the patient’s pocket and continued to provide financial assistance to him so that he could continue his treatment.

He left a glorious mark in the history of the struggle for the national independence of Azerbaijan, was known for his wisdom and humanity, worked for the benefit of his people until the end of his life. The persecution, arrests and exile he encountered along the way did not frighten him and did not turn off the path. As one of those who knew him closely said, throughout his life he did not sacrifice the right for the sake of the wrong, did not lose his temper even in the most difficult moments and became a universal favorite as a wise man. He was a doctor and knew well how to treat the sick, but he also foresaw the causes that led to the collapse and destruction of the decaying empire and which would lead to the independence of Azerbaijan. He belonged to a generation of patriotic intelligentsia that grew up in the early twentieth century, rooted in a revolutionary, national liberation ideology. For him, it was a sacred thing: breaking the imperial chain that wrapped around the throat of Azerbaijan, and the liberation of the people to whom it belongs, gaining independence.
He had infinite confidence that he would once again fly the Turanian flag over the historical Turkish lands… He lost his life on the path of this holy feat and reached eternity. This great man was Khudadat Alekper oglu Rafibeyli, a fiery fighter and patriot, one of the ascetics of the national liberation struggle of Azerbaijan.
Khudadat-bek missed his native land and therefore left Kharkov and returned to Azerbaijan. Then Khudadat-bey began to practice medicine in his native Ganja. He was appointed chief physician of the Ganja (Elizavetpol) city hospital No. 6. At that time, Ganja was considered the unofficial capital of the western region of Azerbaijan. So, since Baku is far away, most of the patients left for Ganja. As elsewhere in Azerbaijan, there was a shortage of doctors in Ganja. In such a situation, Khudadat-bek faced a big and difficult task. Due to the large number of patients, he was in the hospital day and night, sometimes he did not even have time to return home. But he never said that he was tired, he never sent anyone who came to the hospital in despair for treatment. He was a professional surgeon as well as a highly educated mental therapist. He loved his work very much. He also had an important human characteristic that set him apart from other doctors of the time. This happened because Khudadat bey never took money from his patients from the poor population. Sometimes it happened that a patient who came to him for treatment did not have money to buy medicine. In such cases, Khudadat bey put money in the pocket of the patient and provided him with material assistance so that he could continue his treatment. Therefore, in a short time, Khudadat bey became famous not only in Ganjabasar, but throughout Azerbaijan. People flocked to him and asked for a cure for their problems. It even got to the point that not only sick people, but also people dissatisfied with the authorities came to Khudadat bey, complained to him and asked for help in solving their problems.
In such a situation, Khudadat bey, in addition to being a doctor, was also involved in public affairs, and reported the complaints of people suffering from bureaucratic arbitrariness to higher authorities. In most cases, he was able to resolve complaints using his reputation among the people. In a word, a few years after arriving in Ganja, Khudadat bey was able to gain great respect and authority among the people both as a doctor and as a public figure. Despite tireless work day and night, Khudadat bey also appeared in various newspapers and magazines published at that time, with articles on our national and spiritual problems. In these articles, love for the motherland, the fire of patriotism was very strong.

Part of the scientific and journalistic articles written by him at that time was devoted to our history, part to our health, part to art and national problems. These scientific and journalistic works served mainly to educate our population, strengthen its spirit of national patriotism, and draw lessons from our glorious history.
On the eve of the First World War, in 1914, Khudadat-bey, together with the well-known public figure Hasanbay Agayev, founded the Ganja Medical Society and became its first chairman. The main task of this society was to provide free medical care to the poor, save the lives of hundreds of people suffering from hunger and disease. The Ganja Medical Society is engaged in the treatment of sick poor children and annually spends large sums of money on their treatment. Not content with this, the society also provided financial assistance in the education of poor children with special abilities and provided them with scholarships.
By the way, we want to note one important fact about the activities of the Ganja Medical Society, which was little studied and for some reason remained out of sight. It was a humanitarian aid provided by the Ganja Medical Society to thousands of people who were forced to leave their homes as a result of the Russian occupation policy and the massacres committed by Armenians in Anatolia during the First World War. This medical assistance, which consisted mainly of medicines, including medicines, played an important role in saving thousands of people who were sentenced to death as a result of Armenian and Russian brutality in Anatolia. In December 1918, Khoyskin’s government resigned and Khudadat Bey became then the Minister of Health and Social Protection of the country left and returned to Ganja. His return to Ganja was greeted by the people with great joy. The residents of Ganja and Ganjabasar wanted to see Khudadat-bek, whom they knew and respected well, in higher positions, they saw him as a statesman who would solve the problems of the local population and put an end to arbitrariness in the region.
During the First World War, the Ganja Medical Society continued to provide medical and humanitarian assistance to Anatolia. According to some reports, among the members of the society were people who voluntarily went to Anatolia as doctors to provide medical care to the wounded in the Ottoman army. Once again, it is a pity that this issue was not properly investigated and the identity of those who at that time went to the aid of Anatoly from the Ganja Medical Society were not established.
At that time, Khudadat-bek knew about the heavy defeat of tsarism in the First World War and the emergence of a tense situation in all parts of the country. Therefore, he used his authority to propagate the idea of a national liberation struggle among the population of Ganja and Ganjabasar and repeatedly stressed that the future of Azerbaijan would depend on its independence. To prepare the population for the national liberation struggle, Khudadat-bek gathered around him a group of patriots and through them prepared the people for the national liberation struggle. In November 1917, the Bolsheviks, headed by Dashnak Shaumyan, seized power in Baku.
After that, the Dashnaks began to prepare the murder of Muslims in all corners of Azerbaijan. Khudadat-bek Rafibeyli immediately realized that events were developing in a dangerous direction and that the Bolshevik-Dashnak bandits were preparing for a massacre of Muslims and Turks, and to prevent this, he took certain actions to arm the population of Ganja and Ganjabasar. . He sent his people to the villages and advised them to prepare for the expected Bolshevik-Dashnak attack and create armed detachments for this purpose. At the end of March 1918, the massacres committed by the Dashnaks who joined the Bolsheviks in Baku, Shamakhi, Guba, Salyan and other places had a peculiar echo in Ganja. But it was thanks to the efforts of Khudadat-bek and others that the Dashnaks could not repeat the pogroms they had perpetrated in Baku in Ganja.
Like other far-sighted politicians of that time, Khudadat bey Rafibeyli knew that the way to save Azerbaijan lay through an alliance with fraternal Turkey, and therefore he placed great hopes on the help of the fraternal country against the Armenian Dashnaks and Bolshevik bandits. act with them. The proclamation of the independence of Azerbaijan in Tiflis on May 28, 1918 was greeted by Khudadat-bey with great joy. He immediately began to carry out some work related to the strengthening of our independence and the organization of military medical personnel, without waiting for instructions. One of the greatest merits of Mr. Khudadat was the organization and mobilization of special groups of medical personnel familiar to him to provide services to the soldiers of the Caucasian Islamic army who came to the aid of fraternal Azerbaijan and were wounded in battles. During this period, he himself was repeatedly a member of the medical service group of the Caucasian Islamic Army and rendered invaluable services in saving the lives of hero warriors wounded in battle. After the establishment of the first democratic republic in the East in Azerbaijan, Khudadat bey Rafibeyli’s many years of service to the people and people were taken into account. He was appointed Minister of Health and Social Security of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. In this position, he spent a lot of energy on the creation of new sanatoriums in our country, on the elimination of infectious diseases that were rampant at that time.
In addition, during his tenure as Minister of Health, Mr. Khudadat opened free treatment hospitals and paramedical stations in many places, especially in regions where infectious diseases are more common, and focused on providing them with medicines and medical personnel. At that time, taking into account that the plague spread more in the regions, Khudadat bey managed to establish an anti-plague station in the village of Zurnabad near Ganja. At the same time, very important work was carried out in the direction of preventing the plague, which turned into a terrible misfortune. Again, at that time, many measures were taken to provide medical personnel to the newly formed independent army in Azerbaijan at the direction of Khudadat-bek, new hospitals, mobile military medical stations were organized, and medical preparations were purchased abroad to supply them with medical supplies.
Khudadat bey successfully worked as the Minister of Health and Social Security in the first and second cabinets of the Republic of Azerbaijan. But frequent political resignations in the government led to his resignation.
In December 1918, Khoyskin’s government resigned, and Khudadat Bey left the post of Minister of Health and Social Welfare and returned to Ganja. By the way, we note that in 1918-1919 arbitrariness reigned in Ganja and the Ganjabasar zone. Taking advantage of the fact that our newly formed independent state was not sufficiently fortified, some forces created armed gangs and dominated the localities. To prevent this, a strong hand and a determined political leader were needed. Khudadat bey Rafibeyli could be such a strong-willed figure who could solve people’s problems and put an end to the arbitrariness of bandits. Therefore, at the request of the people, Khudadat bey was appointed governor-general of Ganja.

It was a great responsibility for Khudadat bey, but also an honor. Despite the appointment to a new responsible position and the presence of a large amount of work, Khudadat-bey continued his medical activities. He treated the sick every day until noon, and during the day he was engaged in solving the problems of the province.
He said that I was a doctor and my duty was to treat patients. But now I have a big task ahead of me. This is the restoration of peace, rights and justice in the region, the achievement of a peaceful and peaceful life for people, the creation of confidence in our state. He was confident that he would achieve this and soon implemented a number of measures aimed at ensuring stability in the region. As a result, Ganja and the Ganjabasar zone were cleared of armed bandits who resorted to violence against the population, and peace was restored in the region.
At the same time, Khudadat bey punished officials and law enforcement officers who abused their position. As a result, the confidence of the population in law enforcement agencies and our independent state has increased. He wanted to do a lot for his homeland, his people, to open new factories, schools and hospitals in Ganja and adjacent regions, to carry out capital restoration work in Ganja, to decorate it. For this he prepared a special plan. According to this plan, Ganja was to become one of the largest and most developed cities in Azerbaijan. But they did not allow him to carry out this plan. Thus, from the beginning of 1920, Bolshevik Russia moved to occupy Azerbaijan. To this end, the Bolsheviks began to use subversive forces that acted as servants of Russia in Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan, as well as in Ganja and other places. These subversive forces carried out propaganda against the national government among the population, they allegedly preached that the Bolsheviks would save the population from the arbitrariness of the Bek Khan, give them land, “liberate” them. At the same time, local servants of the Bolsheviks, together with the Armenians living in Azerbaijan, resorted to various provocations against the national government, in some places they blew up important objects, tried by any means to create anarchy in the country. when her father was sent away, Mrs. Nigar, who was 7 years old, and others, her ancestors continued on the right path, they left a mark in history as the outstanding successors of this generation. People’s writer Anar continues their journey.
Khudadat bey Rafibeyli was well acquainted with local traitors who wanted to restore peace in Ganja, the former cradle of Azerbaijan’s national independence, and who were servants of the Bolsheviks and wanted to attack our first republic from behind along with the Armenian Dashnaks. Therefore, he made the fight against these traitors one of his main tasks. To this end, he carried out activities to strengthen propaganda among the local population and skillfully prevented all provocations. Therefore, the spirit of faith, freedom and independence of our national government was very strong in Ganja.
But, despite all the efforts of Mr. Khudadat to preserve the national republic, black winds blew over the head of Azerbaijan. As always, the danger for Azerbaijan still came from the north. The Bolsheviks craved Azerbaijan and Baku oil. And they were led in this work by our local traitors, who believed in the fat promises of the Bolsheviks. The Red Army went to Azerbaijan under the guise of a campaign in Turkey, and this tied the hands of many. The population formed artificial sympathy for the Red Army, which wanted to help fraternal Turkey. Khudadat Bey then understood the true purpose of the Red Army. But the forces were unequal. That is why he met with the officers of the national Azerbaijani army in Ganja and discussed the situation with them, and also instructed them to wait for the development of events at the moment and at the same time not to lose vigilance.
On the night of April 27-28, 1920, the Bolsheviks invaded Azerbaijan. After that, on April 29, units of the Red Army occupied our territories and launched an offensive against Ganja. In such a situation, it was already felt that the fate of Ganja was decided. In order not to shed the blood of civilians and not give the Red Army soldiers a pretext for massacres in the city, Khudadat Bey took a far-sighted step. On April 30, he resigned. The last document signed by Mr. Khudadat as governor was his appeal to all the people who worked with him. Khudadat-bey wrote in his address: “During my service as the governor of Ganja for almost a year, I became convinced that both the employees of the governor’s office and the governor’s office, and the employees of the police department subordinate to me conscientiously performed their duties and maintained order, peace and security in the province. – they spared no effort to help me create peace. Therefore, leaving the post of governor, I consider it my moral duty to express my sincere gratitude to the employees of the departments whose names I have mentioned for their diligence and diligence, and I hope that they will continue to honestly and efficiently fulfill their duties. diligently for the sake of progress and prosperity of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Governor Rafibekov. However, Khudadat-bey had no intention of leaving the city and intended to continue his work as a doctor. A few days after the Red Army units entered Ganja, the Armenians in the city began to intensify against the Azerbaijanis. They allegedly informed Baku that the Azerbaijanis and units of the national army in the city were preparing for a provocation against the Red Army, and at the same time, it was believed that Khudadat Bey was at the head of this work in the command of the XI Army. Allegedly, when Khudadat Bey was governor-general, he took harsh measures against people who were supporters of the Bolsheviks and participated in the Armenian massacre. As a result, the command of the Red Army in Ganja began to look for a reason to arrest Khudadat-bek. Finally, the message of the Armenians to the command of the Red Army that Khudadat-bek was preparing an uprising against the Bolsheviks overwhelmed the patience of the Bolshevik regime in the city. On May 12, 1920, the Bolsheviks arrested Khudadat-bek. They decided to deliver him directly from Ganja to Baku under the supervision of armed soldiers. This incident stirred up the whole of Ganja and the population took to the streets. There were thousands of young people at the station. Khudadat Bey was walking to the station to board the train, accompanied by three armed soldiers; As usual, he carried himself straight and proud. According to witnesses, someone handed him money, and he threw it away with his hands. At that time, an armed group of 500 people from Shamkir was moving towards Ganja in order to free Khudadat-bek. However, Khudadat Bey stated that this was not necessary. He knew that he was innocent, and was sure that he would defend his right …
But the Bolshevik regime did not allow him to defend his rights. The Bolsheviks tried Khudadat Bey on charges of burning Armenian villages and killing the local population. Khudadat Bey rejected this slander and declared that he was innocent in this case. But they didn’t let him defend himself or have the last word. Because the goal of the investigator Sofikyan, who organized this case, who first served the Dashnaks, and then went over to the side of the Bolsheviks, was to eliminate one of the outstanding personalities of the Azerbaijani people. And so it happened, and Khudadat-bek was found guilty on false charges. On June 1, he was secretly taken to one of the islands in the Caspian Sea and shot.
The Ganja uprising began because of Khudadat bey. The arrest of Khudadat bey Rafibeyli became a signal for an uprising in Ganja.

On this occasion, the historian N. Yagublu writes in his book “Azerbaijani Legionnaires”: “Starting from mid-May 1920, the situation in Ganja escalated and a clash between the Red Army units and the population was expected. One of the factors that aggravated the situation and initiated the Ganja uprising was the arrest of Khudadat-bek by the Bolsheviks. The Armenians carried out the investigative work of H. Rafibeyli here. A few days after this event, on the night of May 25-26, an uprising began. The famous colonel Jahangir Kazimoglu, who led the Ganja uprising, the former commander of the 3rd Ganja infantry regiment of the Azerbaijan National Army, who later served in the Polish army, was poisoned in Germany by a woman sent by the Soviet KGB in January 1955, also mentioned the beginning of the uprising in his memoirs. This showed that Rafibeyli’s arrest was the reason.”
Rafael Huseynov, a well-known scientist and researcher of the Rafibeyli generation, writes about those difficult days in the following way: “… The Soviet state subjected the Rafibeylites to the most severe repressions nine times. He was arrested, exiled and shot. He waited until the new Rafibeilis grew up, then brought the same troubles on them. A large group of Rafibeili immigrated to Iran and Turkey.
But the emigrant Rafibeilis, freed from the clutches of the evil empire, could not live comfortably abroad. The persecution continued there. Rafibeyli lived in Turkey under three different surnames – Arran, Saygyn, Askeran. Those who remained in the Soviet Union became the Rafiyevs, Rafizade, Babayevs, Karimovs to hide their baileys and rafibes…
But after 70 years, Khudadat bey Rafibeyli was acquitted.



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